A Nonlinear History of Radio

This highly nonlinear history of radio touches briefly on just some of the main stories, and provides pointers to the literature for those who want to probe further. Integrated circuit engineers have the luxury of taking for granted that the incremental cost of a transistor is essentially zero, and this has led to the high-device-count … Read more

Biological Effects of High Frequency Sound

“…results suggest the existence of a previously unrecognized response to complex sound containing particular types of high frequencies above the audible range. We term this phenomenon the ‘hypersonic effect.” May explain why most listeners can hear a supposedly impossibly high-frequency difference between a 12 kilo Hertz square wave versus a 12 kilo Hertz sine wave. … Read more

Nonlinear Distortions in Capacitors

A major cause of audible, non-linear distortions in capacitors By Menno ven der Veen: “We have discovered a major cause of nonlinear distortion in capacitors and we have shown that this effect can create significant -and thus audible- distortions in sound signals…this effect can introduce high levels of intermodulation distortion and thus lead to audible … Read more

Low Level Details in Output Transformers

The possibly unexpected importance of extreme detail in musical excellence. Research paper from Menno van der Veen, 122nd AES in Vienna, Austria, May 2007 ( PDF, archive ) — Summarily paraphrased: Failing to accurately transfer fine details at low levels, traditional audio output transformers nonlinearly mask the naturalness and purity of music played through them. SOURCE

Universal Audio Output Transformer

Over 90 tube amp topologies examined, further evidence of how audio output transformers inescapably present limitations and compromises. Menno Van der Veen presented at 118th AES a paper detailing a universal audio output transformer system that “includes all possible variations in topologies. The system contains 90 variations (at least) and some of them have never … Read more